“The advocates of reason have been unable to answer the crucial question: what makes a cognitive choice valid or invalid? Since God or nature doesn’t tell us how to proceed in our thinking, what standard can we use to guide our thought processes?” — Harry Binswanger
In How We Know, Harry Binswanger, a philosopher who was an associate of Ayn Rand, presents a theory of knowledge based on Rand’s Objectivist philosophy. Advocating a “bottom-up,” inductive approach to cognition, the book covers the gamut of topics starting with the axioms of existence, identity, and consciousness, then taking up concept-formation, propositions, logic, and principles. A chapter on free will, treated as the choice to exercise reason, presents the author’s interpretation of Rand’s view on volition, supplemented by his own analysis.